命名空间风格的导入不能被调用或构造,会导致运行时失败

使用 TypeScript 2.7.2,在带有 @types/express 的 VSCode 版本 1.21 和随后的代码中,在某些情况下 VSCode 会抛出错误,说明

A namespace-style import cannot be called or constructed, and will cause a failure at runtime.

然而,在其他具有类似设置和类似 tsconfig.json 文件的机器上,代码就可以正常工作。这里发生了什么...

import { Bank } from './Bank';
import * as Express from 'express';  <== errors here..

let app: Express.Express;
this.app = Express();                <== and here

为什么会这样?

TIA,

约翰。

stack overflow A namespace-style import cannot be called or constructed, and will cause a failure at runtime
原文答案
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接受的答案

The error should only happen with esModuleInterop: true. Maybe VSCode is ignoring your tsconfig.json or another one with esModuleInterop: true is used.

For a definitive fix set the compiler option esModuleInterop to true and use import express instead of import * as express.

The problem :

The ES6 specification defines the notion of "namespace object". A namespace object is namespaceObject in this statement : import * as namespaceObject from 'a-module'. The typeof this object is object, you are not supposed to be able to call it.

You were using import * as express until now because express is a CommonJS module, for Node.js, it is exported using module.exports. However it is illegal in the ES6 spec, and TypeScript now warns you.

The solution :

Setting esModuleInterop to true will make TypeScript wrap your import calls to check if the module is an ES6 module or a CommonJS. If it's a CommonJS module and you are using import default from 'module' TypeScript will find out and return the correct CommonJS module.

From the TypeScript release note :

Note: The new behavior is added under a flag to avoid unwarranted breaks to existing code bases. We highly recommend applying it both to new and existing projects. For existing projects, namespace imports (import * as express from "express"; express();) will need to be converted to default imports (import express from "express"; express();).


答案:

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In my case I already had "esModuleInterop": true enabled in tsconfig.json. I needed to convert:

import * as assert from "assert";

to:

import assert from "assert";

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How about this:

import express = require('express');